Type1 diabetes, definitions combined


diabetic ketoacidosis: The metabolic condition resulted from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the shift of acid-base status of the body toward the acid side because of loss of base or retention of acids other than carbonic acid is accompanied by the accumulation of ketone bodies in body tissues and fluids.

Endpoint definition

FinnGen phenotype data

392423 individuals

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Apply sex-specific rule None


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Check conditions

not E4_DM2


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Check pre-conditions, main-only, mode, registry filters None

0 out of 7 registries used, show all original rules.


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Check minimum number of events None


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Include endpoints


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Remove individuals based on genotype QC


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Control definitions

Control exclude DIABETES_FG
Control conditions not E4_DM2

Extra metadata

First used in FinnGen datafreeze DF2

Similar endpoints

List of similar endpoints to Type1 diabetes, definitions combined based on the number of shared cases.

Venn diagram with an highlighted set fully inside another set Broader endpoints:

Venn diagram with a set fully inside an highlighted set Narrower endpoints:

Show all endpoint correlations

Summary Statistics

Key figures

All Female Male
Number of individuals 4196 2079 2117
Unadjusted prevalence (%) 1.11 0.99 1.27
Mean age at first event (years) 19.83 18.73 20.91


Follow-up Absolute risk HR [95% CI] p N
1998–2019 0.09 6.04 [3.85, 9.50] 6.0e-15 192
15 years 0.03 4.43 [2.77, 7.06] 4.5e-10 78
5 years 0.01 9.09 [6.04, 13.67] 3.1e-26 41
1 year 0.00 23.15 [14.57, 36.80] 2.7e-40 24

Age distribution of first events

Year distribution of first events

Cumulative Incidence


Index endpoint: T1D – Type1 diabetes, definitions combined
GWS hits: 35

Survival analyses between endpoints


before Type1 diabetes, definitions combined
after Type1 diabetes, definitions combined

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Drugs most likely to be purchased after Type1 diabetes, definitions combined